Environmental benefits of Eucalyptus
Although forests have little influence on the macro-climate of a region, the regions covered largely by forest areas do not reflect the sun's heat in the same way as in non-forest areas. This affects energy balance, the air currents near the ground, and the dust content. The microclimate in the crop or in the forest can be very different from the external conditions and therefore eucalyptuses are particularly effective as 'windshields' and contribute to crop protection and animal health. The air humidity is often higher in a plantation and as the sunlight is less direct, the average temperature is usually low. During the day, the air near the ground of the plantation is cooler than the upper layers, and extreme temperatures do not reach such a high level in the summer and as low in winter, as in open areas or in unprotected parts. The results of eucalyptus to the microclimate of the region are generally similar to those caused by other green forests.
Also, trees can block water from the moisture of the wind passing through the leaves and the upper branches. The tops of the trees retain large amount of water, which then slides through the foliage and reaches the ground, thereby contributing to an annual rainfall which is valuable. Areas that lack trees do not enjoy this privilege.
When the land is not cultivated properly, excessive runoff that occurs after heavy rainfall can cause erosion. The erosion is dependent on factors such as the intensity of precipitation, the soil condition, the tilt of the type of crop and the level of the soil. Eucalyptus helps improve soil conditions by encouraging the penetration of water into the ground, rather than let it arises on the surface.
The weeding in new eucalyptus plantations can leave the soil exposed to erosion. But if done right, the young trees can protect the soil effectively just one year after planting. Planting on steep slopes may be a good way to prevent corrosion. Great caution is required when using techniques such as grooves along the contour.
The mature eucalyptus cultures do not provide much protection on half-fertile areas after the foliage is discontinuous and often sparse, leaving exposed the surface. However, there are some eucalyptuses species that are proposed to reduce corrosion in these conditions. The litter accumulating under almost all forest Eucalyptus (leaves, branches, etc.), can help to form a protective barrier against corrosion. Yet in many parts it is collected for use as fuel or to reduce the risk of fire. Every parcel will be studied in detail before starting a culture to determine whether erosion can be a serious problem, and if so, whether it can be combated. Some soils may not be suitable for cultivation.
Trees reduce the force of the wind and assist in not covered with litter surface. To eliminate corrosion air is not particularly important type of eucalyptus used. Eucalyptus take root quickly, even in sandy and dry soils, so it is particularly popular as ' windbreak '.
In marshy areas where the water is located on or close to it, they have used some eucalyptus species to the drain absorbing the roots. Contaminated areas mosquitoes can sometimes be rehabilitated in this way, but if the project is not planned well, can have harmful effects on adjacent land, as it can reduce the flow of water used for domestic consumption and irrigation.
The effects on soil which has eucalyptus, when not subject to harvesting, have been compared with those of other species and compared with the absence of trees. Studies conducted mainly in India and the Mediterranean and are fairly recent.
It found that eucalyptus have a beneficial effect on soil structure and the same favorable pine.
In pristine areas eucalyptus improve soil fertility contributing to the decomposition of litter.
The impact of exotic trees such as eucalyptus applies in some species of birds and insects, have been studied in Africa, Brazil, Puerto Rico and India. Although the information provided by these studies refers only to specific regions, some of them show how wildlife can respond to specific protection measures.